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10 rivoluzionarie tecnologie del 2017 06.03.17

Il MIT Technology Review ha raccolto dieci tecnolgie che a partire da quest'anno potranno influenzare il nostro stile di vita, l'economia, la politica, la medicina e la nostra cultura.

Reversing Paralysis
Scientists are making remarkable progress at using brain implants to restore the freedom of movement that spinal cord injuries take away.

Self-Driving Trucks
Tractor-trailers without a human at the wheel will soon barrel onto highways near you. What will this mean for the nation's 1.7 million truck drivers?

Paying with Your Face
Face-detecting systems in China now authorize payments, provide access to facilities, and track down criminals. Will other countries follow?

Practical Quantum Computers
Advances at Google, Intel, and several research groups indicate that computers with previously unimaginable power are finally within reach.

The 360-Degree Selfie
Inexpensive cameras that make spherical images are opening a new era in photography and changing the way people share stories.

Hot Solar Cells
By converting heat to focused beams of light, a new solar device could create cheap and continuous power.

Gene Therapy 2.0
Scientists have solved fundamental problems that were holding back cures for rare hereditary disorders. Next we'll see if the same approach can take on cancer, heart disease, and other common illnesses.

The Cell Atlas
Biology's next mega-project will find out what we're really made of.

Botnets of Things
The relentless push to add connectivity to home gadgets is creating dangerous side effects that figure to get even worse.

Reinforcement Learning
By experimenting, computers are figuring out how to do things that no programmer could teach them.

Le auto a guida autonoma negli anni '80 07.11.16

I primi esperimenti di guida autonoma alla Carnagie Mellon e il progetto Eureka Prometheus di Ernst Dickmanns nella metà degli anni '80.

Il mastro birraio e l'intelligenza artificiale 31.08.16

Motherboard racconta il successo della prima birra prodotta grazie all'intervento di un'intelligenza artificiale, capace di ottimizzare il processo produttivo del birrificio grazie all'autoapprendimento fornito dall'esperienza maturata durante la lavorazione e dai feedback ricevuti dai consumatori.

L'ultima invenzione dell'umanità 11.02.15

Secondo le stime entro 25 anni potrebbe essere creata la prima IA super intelligente e questa con ogni probabilità sarà l'ultima invenzione (a meno di non imparare a sublimare/ascendere) del genere umano, prima dell'inizio di una nuova era basata su rivoluzioni scientifico/tecnologiche/sociali compiute esclusivamente da intelligenze artificiali.

An AI system at a certain level -- let's say human village idiot -- is programmed with the goal of improving its own intelligence. Once it does, it's smarter -- maybe at this point it's at Einstein's level -- so now when it works to improve its intelligence, with an Einstein-level intellect, it has an easier time and it can make bigger leaps. These leaps make it much smarter than any human, allowing it to make even bigger leaps. As the leaps grow larger and happen more rapidly, the AGI soars upwards in intelligence and soon reaches the superintelligent level of an ASI system. This is called an Intelligence Explosion, and it's the ultimate example of The Law of Accelerating Returns.

There is some debate about how soon AI will reach human-level general intelligence -- the median year on a survey of hundreds of scientists about when they believed we'd be more likely than not to have reached AGI was 2040 -- that's only 25 years from now, which doesn't sound that huge until you consider that many of the thinkers in this field think it's likely that the progression from AGI to ASI happens very quickly. Like -- this could happen:

It takes decades for the first AI system to reach low-level general intelligence, but it finally happens. A computer is able understand the world around it as well as a human four-year-old. Suddenly, within an hour of hitting that milestone, the system pumps out the grand theory of physics that unifies general relativity and quantum mechanics, something no human has been able to definitively do. 90 minutes after that, the AI has become an ASI, 170,000 times more intelligent than a human.

Superintelligence of that magnitude is not something we can remotely grasp, any more than a bumblebee can wrap its head around Keynesian Economics. In our world, smart means a 130 IQ and stupid means an 85 IQ -- we don't have a word for an IQ of 12,952.

Intelligenze robotiche aliene 30.12.14

La prima intelligenza aliena che incontreremo potrebbe essere un'intelligenza robotica, il punto di incontro evolutivo tra esseri biologici e superintelligenze artificiali.
Susan Schneider, professoressa di filosofia alla University of Connecticut spiega perché andrebbe superato l'archetipo dell'alieno come omino verde.

"There's an important distinction here from just 'artificial intelligence'," Schneider told me. "I'm not saying that we're going to be running into IBM processors in outer space. In all likelihood, this intelligence will be way more sophisticated than anything humans can understand."

The reason for all this has to do, primarily, with timescales. For starters, when it comes to alien intelligence, there's what Schneider calls the "short window observation" -- the notion that, by the time any society learns to transmit radio signals, they're probably a hop-skip away from upgrading their own biology. It's a twist on the belief popularized by Ray Kurzweil that humanity's own post-biological future is near at hand.

"As soon as a civilization invents radio, they're within fifty years of computers, then, probably, only another fifty to a hundred years from inventing AI," Shostak said. "At that point, soft, squishy brains become an outdated model."

Etica robotica 25.11.14

Robolaw è il documento, presentato alla Commissione Europea da parte di un team di ricerca italiano della Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna di Pisa, che elenca alcune linee guida per determinare l'eventuale responsabilità in sede civile e penale in caso di errori da parte di robot, veicoli automatici, esoscheletri, protesi e in generale macchine dotate di intelligenza artificiale.

Cos'è l'intelligenza? 17.02.11

Vincere un milione di dollari a un quiz televisivo, in una partita di tre giorni contro due dei concorrenti più forti di ogni tempo, secondo voi dimostra di essere di fronte a un essere intelligente?
Se avete risposto sì allora dovreste riflettere sull'assunto che HAL 9000 è in mezzo a noi, si chiama Watson ed è stato sviluppato da IBM.

Vuoi il destino, vuoi il manico di un gigante della letteratura il nome HAL sarebbe un'invenzione di Clarke per citare l'IBM nel capolavoro 2001 Odissea nello spazio.
L'acronimo difatti non è nient'altro che il frutto dello spostamento di una lettera, secondo il cifrario di Cesare, del brand della multinazionale blu.

Watson's victory is the culmination of years of research and development for IBM. Watson calculates hundreds of algorithms simultaneously to parse human language complexities such as puns in order to find the answer through its massive database. The machine is powered by 90 32-core IBM Power 750 Express servers with a total of 16 terabytes of memory.

La rivoluzione dell'intelligenza artificiale è intorno a noi 28.12.10

Le AI non si sono trasformate in cervelli pensanti dalle fattezze umanoidi, ma sono introno a noi ogni giorno e a malapena ce ne accorgiamo.
La fantascienza di HAL 9000 è più reale di quanto potremmo immaginare.

The fruits of the AI revolution are now all around us. Once researchers were freed from the burden of building a whole mind, they could construct a rich bestiary of digital fauna, which few would dispute possess something approaching intelligence. "If you told somebody in 1978, 'You're going to have this machine, and you'll be able to type a few words and instantly get all of the world’s knowledge on that topic,' they would probably consider that to be AI," Google cofounder Larry Page says. "That seems routine now, but it's a really big deal."

Even formerly mechanical processes like driving a car have become collaborations with AI systems. "At first it was the automatic braking system," Brooks says. "The person's foot was saying, I want to brake this much, and the intelligent system in the middle figured when to actually apply the brakes to make that work. Now you're starting to get automatic parking and lane-changing." Indeed, Google has been developing and testing cars that drive themselves with only minimal human involvement; by October, they had already covered 140,000 miles of pavement. [...]

In its earlier days, artificial intelligence was weighted with controversy and grave doubt, as humanists feared the ramifications of thinking machines. Now the machines are embedded in our lives, and those fears seem irrelevant. "I used to have fights about it," Brooks says. "I've stopped having fights. I'm just trying to win."

I camion a guida semi automatica attraversano l'Europa 07.04.16

L'European Truck Platooning Challenge

Si è conclusa con un successo la European Truck Platooning Challenge, la sfida che vedeva impegnati convogli di mezzi pesanti a guida semi automatica allestiti da DAF, Daimler, Iveco, MAN, Scania e Volvo che, partiti dalle rispettive sedi, hanno raggiunto Rotterdam attraversando l'Europa. Il primo camion del convoglio è guidato da un essere umano, mentre i restanti mezzi lo seguono in modo automatico. Questa tecnologia può permettere una riduzione dei consumi di carburante sino al dieci percento.

Fonte: Quartz